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Spectral response

The human eye can react to wavelengths between approximately 400 to 700 nm. Most vision applications use light in this range, but some applications require the use of a camera which is sensitive towards either the infrared or ultraviolet spectra.

Many machine vision cameras which are based on CCD or CMOS, are able to detect light up to about 1000 nm and some sensors have enhanced sensitivity between 700 and 1000 nm for use with near infrared lighting.

IR applications starting at a wavelength of 1000 nm either use industrial cameras based on InGaAs sensors, covering wavelengths of 900 nm to 1700 nm in the SWIR range, or micro bolometer cameras for applications in the LWIR range and thermography.

Cameras with enhanced UV sensitivity are also available and these either use sensors that have the cover glass/microlenses removed (or replaced by quartz alter natives), or they use a special coating that converts the incoming UV light to a different wavelength. Most CCD/ CMOS sensors have a peak response between the green and red band of the spectrum (480 - 560 nm).