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All images from lenses suffer from intensity variation from the centre to the edge of the image. As this can affect the suitability of a lens for an application, it is often necessary to examine the performance of a lens for this behaviour, which is known as vignetting.

The effects of vignetting can be pronounced, and care must be taken when choosing the optimum lens solution. Vignetting is particularly undesirable in line-scan cameras, as it creates an uneven sensitivity across the sensor which can be very long.

In contrast to sensor-shading, where the intensity variation is caused by the sensor, vignetting is primarily caused by the lens.

There are two types of vignetting:

  • Lens or mechanical vignetting (shadowing)
  • Cos4 vignetting

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